Baden is a spa town in the Austrian state of Lower Austria and the capital of the Baden district. Located about 26 kilometres south of Vienna, frequently the name is given as Baden bei Wien (Baden near Vienna); this name, however, is not official, but can be used to distinguish it from other cities of the same name such as Baden-Baden or Baden, Switzerland.
Baden is situated at the mouth of the romantic Helenental, part of the Schwechat river valley within the Wienerwald mountain range, and used to be the principal summer resort of the wealthy inhabitants of Vienna, the neighbouring Austrian capital. It possesses a Kurhaus, fifteen bathing-establishments, a parish church in late Gothic style, and a town-hall, which contains archives. The warm baths, which gave name to the town, are thirteen in number, with a temperature of from 22°C (72°F) to 36°C (97°F), and contain, as chief ingredient, sulphate of lime. They rise for the most part at the foot of the Calvarienberg (1070 ft), which is composed of dolomitic limestone, and are mostly used for bathing purposes. Baden is surrounded by about 120 vineyards and has about 70 wine pubs (Heurigen).
The town offers several parks and a picturesque surrounding, of which the most frequented is the Helenental valley. Not far from Baden, the valley is crossed by a widespread aqueduct of the Vienna waterworks. At its entrance, on the right bank of the river, lie the ruins of the 12th century castle of Rauheneck, and at its foot the Château Weilburg, built in 1820-1825 by Archduke Charles of Austria, the victor of the Aspern Battle. On the left bank, just opposite, stands the ruined castle of Rauhenstein, dating also from the 12th century. About 4 m. up the valley is Mayerling, a hunting-lodge, where Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and Baroness Mary Vetsera were found dead in 1889. Farther up is Alland, whence a road leads to the old and well-preserved Heiligenkreuz Abbey. It possesses a church, in Romanesque style, dating from the 11th century, with fine cloisters and the tombs of several members of the Babenberg family.